Univerza v Ljubljani

Fakulteta za šport

Science of Gymnastics

Science of Gymnastics Journal vol.5., num.2, 2013

Ivan Čuk
Predgovor


Dear friends,

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In October 2013 we will celebrate 150 years since the first gymnastics club was established in Slovenia. As the weather in October is already cold and school and sport programs start in September after summer holidays, the main part of celebrations was set for June. A Big Sokol Zlet was held in Ljubljana with over 1000 participants and a few thousand spectators on 17 June 2013. Mr Borut Pahor, the President of the Republic of Slovenia, awarded 'Športni klub Narodni dom' with the Golden Order for Services in the civil field. In addition to the Zlet, an exhibition has  opened in the National Gallery which includes several rewards that are available for public viewing for the first time,  such as medals  of the father of  Slovenian gymnastics Dr Viktor Murnik: Legion of Honour from the French president, White Lion from the Czechoslovakian president, Sveti Sava from the king of Yugoslavia, Order for Service  from the president of Yugoslavia. To date, the club  has organised two world championships (in 1922 and 1970); its member Peter Šumi  won the world championship title twice in a row in 1922 and 1926 (his gold medal from Lyon is on display) and the team from Slovenia won the 4th place in Torino in 1911. On display is a cup received as a gift from other teams in 1922;  Miroslav Cerar's Olympic medals, Mitja Petkovšek's World and European championships medals, Sašo Bertoncelj's prizes  and a laurel wreath from Zlet in 1933. In December, an academic symposium on Sokol's impact on life in Slovenia will be organised.  

Big anniversaries are always opportunity to dig into archives. I encourage you to look into your country's history of gymnastics and submit articles on how gymnastics evolved there (e.g., like Abbie Grossfeld and Anton Gajdoš with friends have done already).After all, one of the definitions of learning is transmitting knowledge and experience from one generation to another.   

With our Journal we wish to transmit knowledge of our researchers so that it can be applied to practice.    

In the June issue we have seven articles. Researchers Roman  Farana, Daniel Jandacka and Irwin Gareth united to explore the impact forces on elbows during the round off. The round off can be used on floor, vault, beam; it is used by man and women and the paper provides practical advise on the position for hands. Oya Erkut Atilgan from Turkey submitted the first article in our Journal related to trampolining. I hope it will encourage other trampolinist to participate with their research papers. The third article is from the United Kingdom by Hannah Clowes and Zoe Knowles. They explore the effectiveness of pre-performance routines of elite artistic gymnasts. As British gymnastics were vey successful at OG in London last year the article is well worth reading. The fourth article is from Slovenia: authors Jerneja Fišer Kurnik, Tanja Kajtna, Klemen Bedenik and Marjeta Kovač investigated what advantages parents anticipate to enrol their child in gymnastics. Trevor Dowdell from Australia submitted his paper 'Achievement goals and motivational climate in competitive gymnastics classes' which provides guidelines on how to promote successful climate in a club. George Dallas and Paschalis Kirialanis from Greece wrote an interesting paper on how the vibration method influences flexibility and strength. The last article is from China: Helen Chen provides a case study on diet for high performance gymnastics.   

Unfortunately, there is some sad news to impair. A truly good friend (my first lecturer at an international judging course) and a member of our editorial board Mikko Pehkonen has passed away. We  thank his friends from Finland for sharing their thoughts about Mikko.  

Just to remind you, if you quote the Journal: its abbreviation in the Web of Knowledge is SCI GYMNASTICS J.   

I wish you pleasant reading and a lot of inspiration for new research projects and articles.


Roman Farana, Daniel Jandacka, Gareth Irwin
VPLIV RAZLIČNIH POLOŽAJEV DLANI NA IMPULZ SILE IN OBREMENITEV KOMOLCA PRI PREMETU VSTRAN Z OBRATOM NAZAJ: ŠTUDIJ PRIMERA


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Premet vstran z obratom nazaj je osnovna telovadna prvina in ključna prvina v razvoju vrhunske ženske telovadbe. Cilj raziskave je bil ugotoviti ali različne postavitve dlani različno vplivajo na silo podlage in navore v komolcu pri ženskah. Ena telovadka mednarodnega nivoja iz Češke republike je sodelovala pri raziskavi. Dve pritisni plošči sta bili uporabljeni za določitev sile na podlago. Osem infrardečih kamer je bilo uporabljenih za pridobitev kinematičnih podatkov. Telovadka je izvedla 10 poskusov premeta vstran z obratom nazaj z vzporedno postavitvijo dlani in 10 poskusov s pravokotno postavitvijo dlani. Statistična analiza je pokazala da je pri pravokotna postavitvi dlani pri drugi roki manjša navpična in vodoravna sila na podlago. Razlike v navorih v komolcu in v kinematičnih značilnostih kažejo, da morda lahko pravokotna postavitev dlani varuje komolec in zmanjšuje možnost poškodovanja.

Ključne besede: biomehanika, telovadba, premet vstran z obratom nazaj, roka, preventive.


Oya Erkut Atilgan
VPLIV VADBE NA VELIKI PROŽNI PONJAVI NA SKOČNO MOČ TER STATIČNO IN DINAMIČNO RAVNOTEŽJE DEČKOV


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Namen študije je bil ugotoviti vpliv 12-tedenske vadbe na veliki prožni ponjavi (VPP) na skočno moč in statično in dinamično ravnotežje pri dečkih, ki niso v procesu treninga. Od 28 dečkov starih 9-10 let je bilo 15 dečkov v poskusni skupini in 13 v kontrolni skupini. Kontrolna skupina je imela 12 tedenski program vadbe, medtem ko kontrolna skupina ni imela nobene športne vadbe. Rezultati so pokazali razlike med pred in po programu v sonožnem statičnem ravnotežju, navpičnem odrivu, dinamičnem ravnotežju pri poskusni skupini, medtem ko se enonožno statično ravnotežje in moč nog nista spremenili. Pri kontrolni skupini med pred in po poskusu ni bilo nobenih sprememb. Vadba na prožni ponjavi je odlično sredstvo za razvoj gibalnih sposobnosti.   Ključne besede: velika prožna ponjava, ravnotežje, mišična sila in moč, dečki.


Hannah Clowes, Zoe Knowles
RAZISKOVANJE USPEŠNOSTI PREDTEKMOVALNIH POSTOPKOV PRI VRHUNSKIH TELOVADKAH: MEŠANA METODA RAZISKOVANJA


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Tekmovalni šport na najvišji ravni zahteva doslednost, natančnost in prenos spretnosti v različnih okoljih v večkratnih ponovitvah s ciljem vedno izvesti optimalni nastop (Singer, 2002). Predtekmovalni postopki (PPR) so zaporedje gibalnih, čustvenih in razumskih oblik vedenja izvedenih tik pred tekmovalnim nastopom (Cohn, 1990). Namen študije je bil ugotoviti vsebino in obseg PPR med različnimi orodji ženske športne gimnastike. Vzorec telovadk je bil namensko izbran iz bivših vrhunskih telovadk Velike Britanije (n=9). Uporabljena je bila mešana fazna metoda. Vse telovadke so v prvi fazi izpolnile vprašalnik Nastopnih strategij (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999). Iz opisne statistike vprašalnika je bilo določenih pet profilov za nadaljnjo kvalitativno obdelavo in uporabo uspešnosti PPR preko polstrukturiranih intervjujev. Primerjani so bili načini priprave na posamezno orodje. Rezultati kažejo na različne PPR priprave na preskok in gred glede na kontrolo vzburjenosti/aktivacije in razumsko vadbo. Telovadke so poročale o posebnih in natančno določenih postopkih, ki vsebujejo predvsem podobe izvedbe in kontrolo vzburjenosti in aktivacije. Posebne  PPR strategije so potrebne za vsako orodje, v skladu s trenutno pripravljenostjo.

Ključne besede: vrhunske telovadke, predstave, psihološka priprava.


Jerneja Fišer Kurnik, Tanja Kajtna, Klemen Bedenik, Marjeta Kovač
ZAKAJ STARŠI VPISUJEJO OTROKE K TELOVADBI OB PRIČETKU ŠOLANJA


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Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti motive staršev, ki vpisujejo otroke v rekreativno telovadbo v osnovni šoli ob vstopu v šolo v šolskem letu 2007/2008. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 386 staršev, ki so odgovarjali na vprašalnik pripravljen prav za to raziskavo. Izračunana je bila opisna statistika in ugotavljanje razlike v motive staršev glede na spol, starost, izobrazbeno strukturo in spol otroka. Najpomembnejši razlog je “šport vpliva na zdravje mojega otroka”. Glede na spol staršev so razlike majhne, struktura motivov pa je različna glede na starost staršev, njihovo izobrazbo in spol otroka. Najpomembnejše motive za telovadbo bi morali upoštevati organizatorji telovadbe v šolskem okolju, se pravi poudariti zdravje otroka ob upoštevanju veselja do pametno uporabljenega prostega časa.

Ključne besede: zunaj kurikularni program, rekreativna telovadba, prvo triletje, motive starši.


Trevor Dowdell
CILJI IN MOTIVACIJSKA KLIMA V OKOLJU TEKMOVALNE TELOVADBE


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Raziskava je del preliminarnega raziskovanja motivacijske klime v tekmovalnih telovadnih društvih. Motivacijska klima je določena kot relativno trajajoča skupinska zaznava strukture ciljev. Osemindvajset dečkov in sto osemdeset deklic tekmovalne telovadbe iz šestih mestnih društev in štirih regijskih v Queenslandu, Australia je bilo izprašanih z vprašalnikom Lestvica športne klime v društvu (SCES). Analiza variance je bila uporabljena, da bi ugotovili ali se razlikujejo po vrsti kluba, spolu in tekmovalnem nivoju. Nizko število ur vadbe in visoko število ur vadbe značilno določata oceno lastne vključenosti v motivacijsko klimo (p<0.01); pri tem se moški razlikujejo od žensk (p<0.01) še pripadnosti (p<0.01), naporu, in organiziranosti (p<0.01). Ta študija kaže na pomembnost motivacijske klime v smislu doseganja nalog in primerjalnih pristojnosti za tekmovalna društva. Motivacijsko klimo je lažje upravljati kot posameznikove lastne cilje, zato jo morajo trenerji poznati, opisovati, razvijati in upravljati.

Ključne besede: cilji, motivacijska klima, tekmovalna telovadba.


George Dallas, Paschalis Kirialanis
VPLIV DVEH VRST VIBRACIJ CELEGA TELESA NA GIBLJIVOST IN SKOČNOST PRI VRHUNSKIH TELOVADCIH


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Namen študije je bil preučiti vpliv različnih načino vibriranja celega telesa (WBV) na gibljivost in odrivno moč telovadcev. Sodelovalo je dvanajst vrhunskih telovadcev. Pri poskusu sta bila uporabljena dva postopka in sicer WBV s statičnim raztezanjem (WBVSS) ter samo WBV. Meritve gibljivosti in skočne moči so bile izvedene pred (Pre), takoj po vibriranju (Post 1), 15 minut po (Post 15) in 30 minut po vibriranju (Post 30). Za analizo podatkov je bila uporabljena dvosmerna ANOVA (pogoji * poskusi) za ponavljajoče poskuse na obeh dejavnikih. s ponavljajočimi ukrepov na obeh dejavnikov je bila uporabljena.Stopnja pomembnosti je bila določena na p <0,05. Za Post hoc test je bila izbrana metoda Bonferonija (0,05 / 6). Rezultati so pokazali, da ni interakcije med pogoji in preskušanji v vseh obravnavanih spremenljivk (p> 0,05). Vendar pa je bila pomembna razlika, ugotovljena pri gibljivosti med pred in po 1. meritve (p = 0,002). Po samo WBV je bil odstotek izboljšanja večji pri spremenljivkah moči kot pri WBVSS. Obe vrsti vibriranja (WBVSS in WBV) imata učinek na merjene gibalne sposobnosti.   Ključne besede: vibracije, gibljivost, mišična moč, raztezanje, gimnastika


Haitao CHEN, Shu LIU, Mei. WANG, Yubin HUANG, Shuqing CUI, Weiai ZHOU
ŠTUDIJ PRIMERA: URAVNAVANJE TELESNE TEŽE PRI VRHUNSKEM TELOVADCU


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V prvi številki revije Science of Gymnastics Journal leta 2009 so avtorji poročali o uspešnem programu zmanjšanja telesne teže pri vrhunski telovadki v sklopu priprav na OI v Pekingu leta 2008. Kot je doslej znano, je uspešno zmanjševati telesno težo zelo težko sleherniku, prav tako pa tudi vrhunskim športnikom, še posebej v zaključnih pripravah na olimpijske igre. Kadarkoli mora vrhunski športnik izgubiti nekaj telesne teže, se pojavijo določeni problemi. V procesu pridobivanja in izgubljanja telesne teže je osnovni problem, kako naj športnik ohrani svojo tekmovalno in telesno pripravljenost na optimalnem nivoju. Kako naj nadzira obseg in intenzivnost dnevne vadbe, saj je to predpogoj za izboljšanje njihovih spretnosti in uspešne izvedbe prvin. Na osnovi zahtev višjega nivoja tekmovalne pripravljenosti za uspešen nastop v svetovnem vrhu ,je potrebno raziskati vedno več podrobnosti vadbe in jih tudi analizirati in zapisati. To poročilo je narejeno kot primer uspešnega dietetičnega program za vrhunskega kitajskega telovadca na OI 2012 v Londonu, ki se je boril tudi s poškodbami pred samimi igrami.   Ključne besede: upravljanje telesne teže, olimpijske igre, vrhunska gimnastika, moški


Heimo Nupponen and Seppo Penttinen
V spomin Mikku Pehkonenu


Doctor of Physical Education Mikko Timo Ensio Pehkonen passed away on 26 January 2013 in the age of 60 years and 16 days, having suffered from a difficult illness. As numerous friends of Mikko said many times at the memorial service, he was a humane, humorous, wise, and sensitive person. As one of his British colleagues wrote: Mikko was a lovely friend and amazing teacher.

For most of his career, Dr. Pehkonen worked as a Senior Lecturer in Physical Education at the University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland. He has been described by his colleagues as a thought-evoking character, who worked tactfully with students and had a great respect for nature. Mikko enjoyed the great outdoors of Lapland by canoeing, skiing, and hiking together with his family, students, and friends. Toward the end of his university career, he focused more and more on nature sports from the viewpoint of accessibility as well as nature tourism. In addition to his responsibilities as a Lecturer in Physical Education, Mikko took care of numerous tasks in the Faculty of Education and the University of Lapland. He was e.g. a reliable member of the University Board and the Faculty Council.  

Artistic gymnastics was especially important for Mikko. He was known as a top-level gymnast, who developed the pedagogy of gymnastics, inspired the young, coached with enthusiasm, and was one of the founding members of the gymnastics club Taipumattomat in Rovaniemi. For years, Mikko gave a dedicated contribution to Finnish gymnastics organisations. Furthermore, he worked as an international gymnastics assessor since 1981 and was a member in the Editorial and Scientific Board of the Science of Gymnastics Journal.  

After obtaining his Bachelor's degree in Physical Education in 1976, Mikko continued his studies and earned his Master’s degree in Physical Education in 1977 and his Licentiate degree in 1982. He obtained his Doctoral degree in Education in 1981. In 2000, he became a Doctor of Physical Education at the University of Jyväskylä; the topic of his Doctoral thesis is Learning and teaching motoric skills: gymnastics and physical education in comprehensive schools. Thereafter, Mikko participated in many extensive cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on Physical Education in Finland. The latest study that he participated in began in the 1980s, and it discussed the effects of Physical Education in schools. As a researcher, Mikko collected data independently and with care, wrote scientific articles on gymnastics and served as a peer reviewer of scientific articles as well. Mikko supervised dozens of Master’s theses and took part in supervising Licentiate and Doctoral theses.  

Mikko, who humbly did not very much bring out his other interests, wrote poetry, and was also interested in profound thinking and photography. Mikko, a valued pedagogue, a great humanist, and a distinguished promoter of gymnastics will be missed by his numerous friends in Finland and other countries.