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Science of Gymnastics

Science of Gymnastics Journal vol.3, num.3, 2011

Bruno Grandi
130 let FIG

Ivan Čuk
Uvodnik

Thomas Heinen, Damian Jeraj, Pia M. Vinken, Katharina Knieps, Konstantinos Velentzas & Hedi Richter
KAJ JE POTREBNO ZA IZVEDBO DVOJNEGA JAEGER SALTA NA DROGU?

Stefan Brehmer & Falk Naundorf
RAZVOJ HITROSTI ZALETA NA PRESKOKU S STAROSTJO TELOVADCEV

Ivan Čuk, Samo Penič, Matej Supej & Dejan Križaj
NASPROTI PAMETNI ODRIVNI DESKI (ŠTUDIJA PRIMERA)

William A. Sands, Jeni R. McNeal, Monèm Jemni & Gabriella Penitente
RAZMIŠLJAJMO PREUDARNO O PREVENTIVI PRED POŠKODBAMI IN VARNOSTJO

Luísa Amaral, Albrecht Claessens, José Ferreirinha & Paulo Santos
PREGLED SPREMENLJIVOSTI PODLAHTNICE IN Z NJO POVEZANI DEJAVNIKI PRI TELOVADCIH

Almir Atiković & Nusret Smajlović
RAZMERJE MED TEŽAVNOSTJO IN BIOMEHANIČNIMI ZNAČILNOSTMI PRESKOKOV V MOŠKI ŠPORTNI GIMNASTIKI


Bruno Grandi
130 let FIG


Dear Friends of Gymnastics,

On the 23rd of July, 2011, the international gymnastics community has celebrated the 130th anniversary of the FIG creation. It all started in 1881, in Liege, Belgium.  

The founder was a humanist, a visionary man, whose ideal was to bring people together around solidarity, tolerance and well-being, around the gymnastics principles.This man, Nicolas Cupérus, dreamed of gymnastics for all, men or women, from all backgrounds or generations; he knew being active was the only way to long term well-being, and that without well-being no culture or personal development would be possible. Indeed dear friends, health experts will confirm that while your car wears out with mileage, your body wears out and ages prematurely with inactivity.  

Today, 130 years later, Cupérus’ vision is more than ever appropriate. Physical activity and gymnastics are the cure and answer to many 21st century illnesses: idleness, obesity, unhappiness. All societies and age groups are affected and the effects extend not only to the individuals’ performances but also to the health care system reaching huge deficit level.   The FIG global Gymnaestrada which was hold in July in the Olympic Capital Lausanne, is a real solution to this malaise. Our 20.000 gymnasts gave us a brilliant answer with their enthusiasm, they delighted us with the quality of their routines, and they cheered us up with the beautiful lesson of life they displayed in Lausanne. I paid tribute to them all.   My dear friends, gymnastics and the FIG have come a long way together.

Established in 1881, part of the Olympic movement since day one, our Federation is one of the oldest world sporting associations. In the early days of the FIG, Pierre de Coubertin and our founder Nicolas Cupérus could have crossed path. The former had the distinguished career we know and led the revival of the Olympic Games. The latter shared the same sporting ideal for the purpose of education and health.   There was a difference though! An important one. Coubertin spoke of competitions. Cupérus didn’t value individual performance! He valued a sport for all abilities, for all levels, for everyone. The father of the gymnastics community wanted to create a universal movement, gathered around a vision of well-being, physical activity, body language, for all people and all ages. The Spirit of the World Gymnaestrada, gymnastics for all, was born in 1881 from the FIG founder’s original quest. Cupérus had to abandon his project and bow down to those in favour of a competitive gymnastics. He did win posthumously when in 1953 Johannes Heinrich François Sommer, one of his loyal successors, organised the first World Gymnaestrada in Rotterdam.  

Today, Gymnastics is one of the most important sports of the Olympic programme. Thanks to the artistic disciplines, we have a tremendous TV coverage the world over. But this success is not for ever. We must pay attention to the future of our sport.   I recently invited all the technicians to attend a Symposium dedicated to the Code of Points of all of our 6 competitive disciplines, in order to evaluate the positioning and the potential development of our sport. The more seasoned among us remember back to the first Code. A twelve-page opus crafted by Gander, Lapalu and Hentges, it gave structure to Men’s Artistic Gymnastics and mapped out judging in three distinct categories: difficulty, combination and execution. That was back in 1949.  

Today, the Code reaches out to cover all FIG disciplines; it governs everything, infiltrating gymnastics like a metastasis that spreads and traps the sport in its deadly net. Originally created to serve the development of our sport, the Code has mutated into a time bomb that we are wholly unable to contain. Worse, it is a pitfall to judges and gymnasts alike, and creates situations that are often impossible to navigate. Remember Athens!  

The time has come for us, the technicians, judges and leaders in sport, to gather round a single table and revisit the Code; to re-equip our discipline with the structure and spirit originally inherent to it. This is the endgame of the FIG Symposiums for Rhythmic Gymnastics in Zurich (SUI) at the end of April, for Artistic and Trampoline in mid-June and for Aerobic and Acrobatic in September. Simplify the Codes; we all agree on this point. Keep in mind the essence of Roman law, the first legal system in the history of Man and which is still active today. According to our predecessors, excessive detail is what dilutes and suffocates justice. Too many laws annihilate law itself!   Starting in 2005, we took successful steps toward standardising our Codes; a commendable action, to be sure, but a far cry from being enough. What we need is complete and unequivocal reform if we hope to have a Code that serves to further develop our sport. We must simplify, not complicate. What is the essential reason for the Code? What is it made to do? What is the meaning of its existence? The answer is found in history, whose most basic message is that in order to move forward into the future, one often needs to take a brief look into the past.  

At the 1948 Olympic Games in London, judging in gymnastics was scandalous! Judges were using criteria to evaluate exercises specific only to their own countries. It was a free for all. Such chaos! A Code was then created to clarify and classify criteria to maintain a standardised approach to judging. Unity was finally re-established. A mere twelve pages in 1949 compared to hundreds today, not counting the thousands of symbols that go with them! How can a judge effectively react, evaluate and decide in mere seconds and under the pressure that goes hand in hand with, say, an Olympic Final? Impossible; it is beyond human capacity.  

We need a Code, a point of reference, which will bring structure to the evaluations brought by our judges and allow us to employ the Fairbrother system. Only by doing this will we be able to avoid situations such as were experienced in Athens and London. We have the tools, IRCOS for one, which can aid in attributing an accurate technical score if used properly. But we must accept the fact that the Artistic score is largely a product of a more subjective, and certainly human, evaluation. That is the variable in our equation; fallible but not unjust. And if we are to lose ourselves in the nimbus of objectivity, we have reference judges in the wings to set our course straight.  

Thank you all for your attention.


Ivan Čuk
Uvodnik


Dear friends,  

Whole Science of Gymnastics Journal vol 3 num 3 2011.pdf

 International Gymnastics Federation celebrates 130 years since it has been established. Respectable anniversary, no other sport federation has it. In many ways FIG showed the way to sport and science, so we asked FIG president Prof. Bruno Grandi to write some past, present and future aims of gymnastics family.  

The last year issues of Journal were visited by more than 16000 visitors, what gives us a true compliment for our endeavor. By the New Year 2012 we will establish SchoolarOne Manuscript Software for easier work with articles for authors, reviewers and publishers. We were included into Index Copernicus, we are waiting to be included into Proquest Physical Education Index, and in 2013 we will be evaluated by Thomson Reuters to become part of Science Citation Index. In the mean time we need to continue with good articles (you are welcome to contribute your knowledge to the gymnastics world) which will be cited also in other scientific journals.   

October issue of the Journal starts with the design of double Jaeger on high bar. Thomas Heinen, Damian Jeraj, Pia Vinken, Katharina Knieps, Konstantinos Velentzas and Hedi Richter performed a huge series of calculations (on the basis of known results from Jaeger, Gaylord and Pegan saltos). They found out Double Jaeger is possible to perform (actually by some evidence Valerij Ljukind did it in training sessions) but it has certain limitations. What German Austrian team calculated we will wait to see in vivo at the competition.  

The second article is by German authors Stefan Brehmer and Falk Naundorf. They analyzed runway speed characteristics of the young gymnasts. There is an increase in the velocity up to the end of men’s junior gymnastics age, followed by stagnation in senior age. The speed increase in pubescence and adolescence do not differ. Therefore coordinative and conditional factors determined the development of run-up velocity equally.  

The third article comes from Slovenia. Ivan Čuk, Samo Penić, Matej Supej and Dejan Križaj made a new technology (with accelerometer) for evaluating action on springboard. Results gathered from the new technology are similar to those obtained by other technologies. New technology can be used for training and scientific purposes.  

The fourth article is from combined team from USA and UK: Wiliam A. Sands,Jeni R. McNeal,Monèm Jemni,Gabriella Penitente and deals with the safety in gymnastics. Five questions are proposed as a model for injury prevention and safety. Do not forget – only healthy gymnast can fulfill his champion dream.  

The fifth article deals with gymnast’s morphology. Portuguese authors Luísa Amaral, José FerreirinhaPaulo Santos with Belgiumexpert Albrecht Claessens write about the incidence of positive, neutral and negative ulnar variance between gymnasts and the general population (both immature and mature), seeking to identify possible wrist injury risk factors, which usually influence the gymnasts’ health and performance.  

The sixth article is from Bosnia and Herzegovina, authors Almir Atiković and Nusret Smajlović did interesting analyze of the FIG vault difficulty values. Since it has been in May FIG symposium on Code of Points their work can help towards better design of difficulty values.  

I wish you pleasant reading and a lot of inspiration.


Thomas Heinen, Damian Jeraj, Pia M. Vinken, Katharina Knieps, Konstantinos Velentzas & Hedi Richter
KAJ JE POTREBNO ZA IZVEDBO DVOJNEGA JAEGER SALTA NA DROGU?


Jaeger salto (z zakolebom spust salto naprej na drogu v zakoleb) je osnovni spust na drogu, katerega se telovadci učijo že zgodaj. Telovadci so naredili velik napredek v tehniki gibanj na drogu, cilj raziskave pa je bil ugotoviti ali je dvojni Jaeger salto možno izvesti in pod kakšnimi pogoji. Narejena je bila računalniška simulacija dvojnega skrčenega in sklonjenega Jaeger salta. Osnovni model je bil narejen na osnovi resničnih podatkov izvedbe različnih Jaeger in Gaylord saltov. Pomembne spremenljivke modela so bile navpična in vodoravna hitrost težišča telesa telovadca ob zapuščanju droga, vztrajnostni moment telovadca in koti med deli telesa. Izračunanih je bilo 940896 različnih simulacij izvedbe, od tega jih je bilo 3.26% uspešnih za dvojni skrčeni Jaeger salto in 2.50% za sklonjeno izvedbo. Dvojni Jaeger salto je možno izvesti,telovadec pa mora zagotoviti primerno vrtilno količino in trajanje leta.

Celoten članek.pdf  

Ključne besede: simulacija, kotrola gibanja, tehnika, gimnastika.


Stefan Brehmer & Falk Naundorf
RAZVOJ HITROSTI ZALETA NA PRESKOKU S STAROSTJO TELOVADCEV


Zalet na preskoku je v literaturi navajan kot najpomembnejši dejavnik izvora energije za uspešno izveden preskok. Hitrost zaleta naj bi se glede na biološke značilnosti človeka rahlo razvijala do prehoda telovadca v člansko kategorijo, za kar so odgovorni različni mehanizmi. Za povečanje hitrosti od otroštva v mladostništvo so predvsem odgovorni mehanizmi kontrole gibanja. Na začetku pubertete je za povečanje hitrosti pri moških osnovni vzrok spremenjeno delovanje hormonov. Za dokaz omenjenih trditev smo primerjali hitrost zaleta v različnih obdobjih gibalnega razvoja; štiri leta smo spremljali telovadce različnih starostnih kategorij na različnih tekmovanjih v gimnastiki. Zaletna hitrost se povečuje do konca mladinske kategorije, v članski kategoriji pa ostaja nespremenjena. Sprememba hitrosti v puberteti in mladostništvu se ne razlikujeta. Mehanizmi kontrole gibanja in razvoja mišične sile enakovredno določajo zaletno hitrost.

 Celoten članek.pdf  

Ključne besede: starost, razvoj, zaletna hitrost, preskok, moška športna gimnastika.


Ivan Čuk, Samo Penič, Matej Supej & Dejan Križaj
NASPROTI PAMETNI ODRIVNI DESKI (ŠTUDIJA PRIMERA)


Različne merske naprave se uporabljajo na preskoku v gimnastiki, vendar nobena ni posebaj razvita za odrivno desko. Po analizi literature smo se odločili razviti mersko napravo za merjenje delovanja odrivne deske. Nova naprava je sestavljena iz računalnika z LCD ekranom, ki je povezan s pospeškometrom, ki je nameščen pod odrivnim mestom. Pospeškometer meri v dveh smereh s hitrostjo 1000 Hz. Iz dobljenih pospeškov je izračunana in prikazana hitrost odriva in trajanje odriva. Podatke se lahko prenaša v namizni računalnik preko USB vmesnika. S pomočjo programa MATLAB lahko podatke shranimo, prečistimo in analiziramo. Dobljeni rezultati so podobni tistim, ki so dobljeni na potiskovni plošči in laserskim merilcem razdalje (podobne hitrosti in časi trajanja). Z novo napravo je možno določiti značilne aktivnosti odrivne deske posameznega telovadca, optimalne vrednosti za posamezno vrsto skoka, sposobnost natančnega ponavljanja odriva telovadca, ugotavljati simetričnost odriva, in optimizirati uspešnost treninga. Naprava se lahko uporabi na treningu za hitro pridobivanje in analiziranje podatkov, kakor tudi za raziskovalne namene.  

Celoten članek.pdf  

Ključne besede: merilne naprave, pospeškometer, odrivna hitrost, preskok.


William A. Sands, Jeni R. McNeal, Monèm Jemni & Gabriella Penitente
RAZMIŠLJAJMO PREUDARNO O PREVENTIVI PRED POŠKODBAMI IN VARNOSTJO


Kljub pozornosti medijev, pedagogov in zdravnikov ostajajo poškodbe najbolj pereč problem gimnastike. Programi preventive, regeneracije in zdravljenja so bili predlagani velikokrat, največkrat naključno izvajani in malokrat zaslužni za zmanjšanje pojavnosti poškodb. Pri preprečevanju poškodb moramo razmišljati o veliko stvareh od varnosti orodij do odnosa trenerjev do športnikov. Na žalost, če je eden izmed protiukrepov neustrezen je poškodba verjetna. Izdelan je bil model za preprečevanje poškodb in varnost na osnovi dosedanje literature, in predvideva pet sklopov. Vsak sklop je obravnavan in predlagani so ukrepi za preprčitev poškodb.

Celoten članek.pdf 

Ključne besede: gimnastika, trening, nevarnost.


Luísa Amaral, Albrecht Claessens, José Ferreirinha & Paulo Santos
PREGLED SPREMENLJIVOSTI PODLAHTNICE IN Z NJO POVEZANI DEJAVNIKI PRI TELOVADCIH


Spremenljivost podlahtnice je povezana z relativno dolžino koželjnice. Morfološke razlike v distalnih epifiznih strukturah lahko povzroči simptome ali patološke spremembe na zapestju. Da bi lahko ocenili in izmerili neskladje podlahti (podlahtnice in koželjnice) se uporabljajo različne tehnike merjenja (slikanja), odvisno od razvitosti posameznika. Namen članka je povzeti trenutno literature in opis trendov raziskovanja spremenljivosti podlahtnice ob upoštevanju bioloških značilnosti in obremenitve posameznika. Opredeljena je pogostost pozitivnih, nevtralnih in negativnih spremenljivosti podlahtnice med telovadci in splošno populacijo. Ob tem so opredeljeni dejavniki tveganja poškodbe zapestja, ki ponavadi najbolj vpliva na zdravje in uspešnost telovadcev.

 Celoten članek v pdf

Ključne besede: gimnastika, morfologija, zapestje, poškodbo.  


Almir Atiković & Nusret Smajlović
RAZMERJE MED TEŽAVNOSTJO IN BIOMEHANIČNIMI ZNAČILNOSTMI PRESKOKOV V MOŠKI ŠPORTNI GIMNASTIKI


Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, katere biomehanične značilnosti pojasnjujejo in določajo vrednosti težavnosti preskoka. V vzorec je bilo vključenih 64 preskokov iz Pravil FIG za ocenjevanje v moški športni gimnastiki. Odvisna spremenljivka je bila vrednost težavnosti preskokov v razponu od 2,0-7,2 točke, vzorec neodvisnih spremenljivk je predstavljalo 12 biomehaničnih spremenljivke (podatki so bili zbrani iz literature in lastnih meritev). Z regresijsko analizo smo pojasnili 92,4% vrednosti težavnosti. Le tri spremenljivke drugega leta značilno napovedujejo težavnost preskoka in sicer: količina vrtenja okoli čelne osi, količina vrtenje okoli dolžinske osi stopinj in vztrajnostni moment telesa.

Celoten članek.pdf  

Ključne besede: Pravila FIG, Gimnastika, težavnost, biomehanika.